VW is a recidivist emission control violator using defeat devices to turn off emission controls used only in emission testing. Under former Administrator Bill Ruckelshaus, EPA warned VW in 1972 about defeat devices and then sued it in 1973 when VW failed to heed the warning. VW paid a $120,000 fine and promised to comply with the Clean Air Act in the future. So much for promises to obey the law. The only way to change auto company behavior is to put the responsible executives in jail.