Arkansas Lemon Law
Arkansas Code, Â§4-90-401 to 417
Â§ 4-90-401. Title.
This subchapter shall be known and may be cited as the “Arkansas New
Motor Vehicle Quality Assurance Act”.
Â§ 4-90-402. Legislative determinations and intent.
The Arkansas General Assembly recognizes that a motor vehicle is a major
consumer acquisition and that a defective motor vehicle undoubtedly creates
a hardship for the consumer. The Arkansas General Assembly further recognizes
that a duly franchised motor vehicle dealer is an authorized service agent
of the manufacturer. It is the intent of the Arkansas General Assembly
that a good faith motor vehicle warranty complaint by a consumer be resolved
by the manufacturer within a specified period of time. It is further the
intent of the Arkansas General Assembly to provide the statutory procedures
whereby a consumer may receive a replacement motor vehicle, or a full
refund, for a motor vehicle which cannot be brought into conformity with
the warranty provided for in this subchapter. However, nothing in this
subchapter shall in any way limit the rights or remedies which are otherwise
available to a consumer under any other law.
Â§ 4-90-403. Definitions.
As used in this subchapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1)”Calendar day” means any day of the week other than a legal holiday;
(2)”Collateral charges” means those additional charges to a consumer
wholly incurred as a result of the acquisition of the motor vehicle. For
the purposes of this subchapter, collateral charges include, but are not
limited to, manufacturer-installed or agent-installed items, earned finance
charges, sales taxes, title charges, and charges for extended warrantiesprovided
by the manufacturer, its subsidiary, or agent;
(3) “Condition” means a general problem that may be attributable to a
defect in more than one (1) part;
(4) “Consumer” means the purchaser or lessee, other than for the purposes
of lease or resale, of a new or previously untitled motor vehicle, or
any other person entitled by the terms of the warranty to enforce the
obligations of the warranty during the duration of the motor vehicle quality
assurance period, provided the purchaser has titled and registered the
motor vehicle as prescribed by law;
(5) “Incidental charges” means those reasonable costs incurred by the
consumer, including, but not limited to, towing charges and the costs
of obtaining alternative transportation which are directly caused by the
nonconformity or nonconformities which are the subject of the claim, but
shall not include loss of use, loss of income, or personal injury claims;
(6) “Lease price” means the aggregate of:
(A) The lessor’s actual purchase costs;
(B) Collateral charges, if applicable;
(C) Any fee paid to another person to obtain the lease;
(D) Any insurance or other costs expended by the lessor for the benefit
of the lease;
(E) An amount equal to state and local sales taxes, not otherwise included
as collateral charges, paid by the lessor when the vehicle was initially
(F) An amount equal to five percent (5%) of the lessor’s actual purchase
(7) “Lessee” means any consumer who leases a motor vehicle for one (1)
year or more pursuant to a written lease agreement which provides that
the lessee is responsible for repairs to such motor vehicle;
(8) “Lessee cost” means the aggregate deposit and rental payments previously
paid to the lessor for the leased vehicle;
(9) “Lessor” means a person who holds title to a motor vehicle leased
to a lessee under the written lease agreement or who holds the lessor’s
rights under such agreement;
(10) “Manufacturer” means:
(A) Any person who is engaged in the business of constructing or assembling
new motor vehicles or installing, on previously assembled vehicle chassis,
special bodies or equipment which, when installed, form an integral part
of the new motor vehicle; or
(B) In the case of motor vehicles not manufactured in the United States,
any person who is engaged in the business of importing new motor vehicles
into the United States for the purpose of selling or distributing new
motor vehicles to new motor vehicle dealers;
(11) “Motor vehicle” or “vehicle” means any self-propelled vehicle licensed,
purchased, or leased in this state and primarily designed for the transportation
of persons or property over the public streets and highways, but does
not include mopeds, motorcycles, the living facilities of a motor home,
or vehicles over ten thousand pounds (10,000 lbs.) gross vehicle weight
rating. For purposes of this definition, the limit of ten thousand pounds
(10,000 lbs.) gross vehicle weight rating does not apply to motor homes;
(12) “Motor vehicle quality assurance period” means a period of time
(A) Begins: (i) On the date of original delivery of a motor vehicle;
or (ii) In the case of a replacement vehicle provided by a manufacturer
to a consumer under this subchapter, on the date of delivery of the replacement
vehicle to the consumer; and
(B) Ends twenty-four (24) months after the date of the original delivery
of the motor vehicle to a consumer, or the first twenty-four thousand
(24,000) miles of operation attributable to the consumer, whichever is
(13) “Nonconformity” means any specific or generic defect or condition
or any concurrent combination of defects or conditions that:
(A) Substantially impairs the use, market value, or safety of a motor
(B) Renders the motor vehicle nonconforming to the terms of an applicable
manufacturer’s express warranty or implied warranty of merchantability;
(14) “Person” means any natural person, partnership, firm, corporation,
association, joint venture, trust, or other legal entity;
(15) “Purchase price” means the cash price paid for the motor vehicle
appearing in the sales agreement or contract, including any net allowance
for a trade-in vehicle;
(16) “Replacement motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle which is identical
or reasonably equivalent to the motor vehicle to be replaced, as the motor
vehicle replaced existed at the time of the original acquisition; and
(17) “Warranty” means any written warranty issued by the manufacturer,
or any affirmation of fact or promise made by the manufacturer, excluding
statements made by the dealer, in connection with the sale or lease of
a motor vehicle to a consumer which relates to the nature of the material
or workmanship and affirms or promises that such material or workmanship
is free of defects or will meet a specified level of performance.
Â§ 4-90-404. Notice by consumer – Disclosure by manufacturer, agent,
(a) (1) A consumer must notify the manufacturer of a claim under this
subchapter if the manufacturer has made the disclosure required by subsection
(b) of this section.
(2) However, if the manufacturer has not made the required disclosure,
the consumer is not required to notify the manufacturer of a claim under
(b) (1) At the time of the consumer’s purchase or lease of the vehicle,
the manufacturer, its agent, or an authorized dealer shall provide to
the consumer a written statement that explains the consumer’s rights and
obligations under this subchapter.
(2) The written statement shall be prepared by the Consumer Protection
Division of the Office of the Attorney General and shall include the telephone
number of the Consumer Protection Division that the consumer can contact
to obtain information regarding his or her rights and obligations under
(3) For each failure of the manufacturer, its agent, or an authorized
dealer to provide to a consumer the written statement required under this
section, the manufacturer shall be liable to the State of Arkansas for
a civil penalty of not less than twenty-five dollars($25.00) nor more
than one thousand dollars ($1,000).
(c) (1) The manufacturer shall clearly and conspicuously disclose to
the consumer, in the warranty or owner’s manual, that written notice of
the nonconformity is required before the buyer may be eligible for a refund
or replacement of the vehicle.
(2) The manufacturer shall provide the consumer with conspicuous notice
of the address and phone number for its zone, district, or regional office
for this state at the time of vehicle acquisition, to which the buyer
must send notification.
Â§ 4-90-405. Required warranty repairs.
If a motor vehicle does not conform to the warranty and the consumer
reports the nonconformity to the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized
dealer during the motor vehicle quality assurance period, the manufacturer,
its agent, or authorized dealer shall make such repairs as are necessary
to correct the nonconformity, even if the repairs are made after the expiration
of the term of protection.
Â§ 4-90-406. Failure to make required repairs.
(a) (1) After three (3) attempts have been made to repair the same nonconformity
that substantially impairs the motor vehicle, or after one (1) attempt
to repair a nonconformity that is likely to cause death or serious bodily
injury, the consumer shall give written notification, by certified or
registered mail, to the manufacturer of the need to repair the nonconformity
in order to allow the manufacturer a final attempt to cure the nonconformity.
(2) The manufacturer shall, within ten (10) days after receipt of the
notification, notify and provide the consumer with the opportunity to
have the vehicle repaired at a reasonably accessible repair facility,
and, after delivery of the vehicle to the designated repair facility by
the consumer, the manufacturer shall, within ten (10) days, conform the
motor vehicle to the warranty.
(3) If the manufacturer fails to notify and provide the consumer with
the opportunity to have the vehicle repaired at a reasonably accessible
repair facility or fails to perform the repairs within the time periods
prescribed in this subsection, the requirement that the manufacturer be
given a final attempt to cure the nonconformity does not apply and a nonrebuttable
presumption of a reasonable number of attempts to repair arises.
(b)(1) (A) If the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer has not
conformed the motor vehicle to the warranty by repairing or correcting
one (1) or more nonconformities that substantially impair the motor vehicle
after a reasonable number of attempts, the manufacturer, within forty
(40) days, shall:
(i) At the time of its receipt of payment of a reasonable offset for
use by the consumer, replace the motor vehicle with a replacement motor
vehicle acceptable to the consumer; or
(ii) Repurchase the motor vehicle from the consumer or lessor and refund
to the consumer or lessor the full purchase price or lease price, less
a reasonable offset for use and less a reasonable offset for physical
damage sustained to the vehicle while under the ownership of the consumer.
(B) The replacement or refund shall include payment of all collateral
and reasonably incurred incidental charges.
(2) (A) The consumer shall have an unconditional right to choose a refund
rather than a replacement.
(B) At the time of such refund or replacement, the consumer, lienholder,
or lessor shall furnish to the manufacturer clear title to and possession
of the motor vehicle.
(3) The amount of reasonable offset for use by the consumer shall be
determined by multiplying the actual price of the new motor vehicle paid
or payable by the consumer, including any charges for transportation and
manufacturer-installed or agent-installed options, by a fraction having
as its denominator one hundred twenty thousand (120,000) and having as
its numerator the number of miles traveled by the new motor vehicle prior
to the time the buyer first delivered the vehicle to the manufacturer,
its agent, or authorized dealer for correction of the problem that gave
rise to the nonconformity.
Â§ 4-90-407. Refunds.
(a)(1) Refunds shall be made to the consumer and lienholder of record,
if any, as their interests may appear.
(2) If applicable, refunds shall be made to the lessor and lessee as
(A) The lessee shall receive the lessee cost less a reasonable offset
for use; and
(B) The lessor shall receive the lease price less the aggregate deposit
and rental payments previously paid to the lessor for the leased vehicle.
(b) If the manufacturer makes a refund to the less
or or lessee pursuant to this subchapter, the consumer’s lease agreement
with the lessor shall be terminated upon payment of the refund and no
penalty for early termination shall be assessed.
(c) If a replaced vehicle was financed by the manufacturer, its subsidiary,
or agent, the manufacturer, subsidiary, or agent may not require the buyer
to enter into any refinancing agreement concerning a replacement vehicle
that would create any financial obligations upon the buyer beyond those
of the original financing agreement.
Â§ 4-90-408. Reimbursement of towing and rental costs.
Whenever a vehicle is replaced or refunded under this subchapter, the
manufacturer shall reimburse the consumer for necessary towing and rental
costs actually incurred as a direct result of the nonconformity. Â§ 4-90-409.
Option to retain use of vehicle. A consumer has the option of retaining
the use of any vehicle returned under this subchapter until the time that
the consumer has been tendered a full refund or a replacement vehicle
of comparable value.
Â§ 4-90-410. Presumption of reasonable attempts to repair – Extension
of time to repair in case of war, invasion, strike, fire, flood, or natural
(a) A rebuttable presumption of a reasonable number of attempts to repair
is considered to have been undertaken to correct a nonconformity if:
(1) The nonconformity has been subject to repair as provided in Â§ 4-90-406(a),
but the nonconformity continues to exist;
(2) The vehicle is out of service by reason of repair, or attempt to
repair, any nonconformity for a cumulative total of thirty (30) calendar
(3) There have been five (5) or more attempts, on separate occasions,
to repair any nonconformities that together substantially impair the use
and value of the motor vehicle to the consumer.
(b) (1) The thirty (30) calendar days in subdivision (a)(2) of this section
shall be extended by any period of time during which repair services are
not available as a direct result of war, invasion, strike, fire, flood,
or natural disaster.
(2) The manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer shall provide or
make provisions for the free use of a vehicle to any consumer whose vehicle
is out of service beyond thirty (30) days by reason of delayed repair
as a direct result of war, invasion, strike, fire, flood, or natural disaster.
(c) The burden is on the manufacturer to show that the reason for an
extension under subsection (b) of this section was the direct cause for
the failure of the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer to cure
any nonconformity during the time of the event.
Â§ 4-90-411. Diagnosis or repair – Documentation.
(a) A manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer may not refuse to
diagnose or repair any vehicle for the purpose of avoiding liability under
(b) (1) A manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer shall provide
a consumer with a written repair order each time the consumer’s vehicle
is brought in for examination or repair.
(2) The repair order must indicate all work performed on the vehicle,
including examination of the vehicle, parts, and labor.
Â§ 4-90-412. Resale of returned nonconforming vehicle.
If a motor vehicle has been replaced or repurchased by a manufacturer
as the result of a court judgment, an arbitration award, or any voluntary
agreement entered into between a manufacturer and a consumer that occurs
after a consumer complaint has been investigated and evaluated pursuant
to this subchapter or a similar law of another state, the motor vehicle
may not be resold in Arkansas unless:
(1) The manufacturer provides the same express warranty the manufacturer
provided to the original purchaser, except that the term of the warranty
need only last for twelve thousand (12,000) miles or twelve (12) months
after the date of resale, whichever occurs first; and
(2) The manufacturer provides a written disclosure, signed by the consumer,
indicating that the vehicle was returned to the manufacturer because of
a nonconformity not cured within a reasonable time as provided by Arkansas
Â§ 4-90-413. Affirmative defenses.
It is an affirmative defense to any claim under this subchapter that:
(1) The nonconformity, defect, or condition does not substantially impair
the use, value, or safety of the motor vehicle;
(2) The nonconformity, defect, or condition is the result of an accident,
abuse, neglect, or unauthorized modification or alteration of the motor
vehicle by persons other than the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized
(3) The claim by the consumer was not filed in good faith; or
(4) Any other defense allowed by law that may be raised against the claim.
Â§ 4-90-414. Informal proceeding as precedent.
(a) (1) Any manufacturer doing business in this state, entering into
franchise agreements for the sale of its motor vehicles in this state,
or offering express warranties on its motor vehicles sold or distributed
for sale in this state, shall operate, or participate in, an informal
dispute settlement proceeding located in the State of Arkansas which complies
with the requirements of this section.
(2) The provisions of Â§ 4-90-406(b)(1) and (2) concerning refunds or
replacement do not apply to a consumer who has not first used this informal
proceeding before commencing a civil action, unless the manufacturer allows
a consumer to commence an action without first using this informal procedure.
(3) (A) The consumer shall receive adequate written notice from the
manufacturer of the existence of the procedure. (B) Adequate written notice
may include the incorporation of the informal disputesettlement procedure
into the terms of the written warranty to which the motorvehicle does
(b) The informal dispute procedure must be certified by the Consumer
Protection Division of the Office of the Attorney General as meeting the
(1) The informal dispute procedure must comply with the minimum requirements
of the Federal Trade Commission for informal dispute settlement procedures
as set forth in 16 C.F.R. Â§ 703.1 et seq., as in effect on the date of
adoption of this subchapter, unless any provision of 16 C.F.R. Â§ 703.1
et seq. is in conflict with this subchapter, in which casethe provisions
of this subchapter shall govern;
(2) The informal dispute procedure must prescribe a reasonable time,
not to exceed thirty (30) days after the decision is accepted by the buyer,
within which the manufacturer or its agent must fulfill the terms of its
(3)(A) No documents shall be received by any informal dispute procedure
unless those documents have been provided to each of the parties in the
dispute at or prior to the proceeding, with an opportunity for the parties
to comment on the documents either in writing or orally.
(B) If a consumer is present during the informal dispute proceeding,
the consumer may request postponement of the proceeding meeting to allow
sufficient time to review any documents presented at the time of the meeting
which had not been presented to the consumer prior to the time of the
(4)(A) The informal dispute procedure shall allow each party to appear
and make an oral presentation within the State of Arkansas unless the
consumer agrees to submit the dispute for decision on the basis of documents
alone or by telephone, or unless the party fails to appear for an oral
presentation after reasonable prior written notice.
(B) If the consumer agrees to submit the dispute for decision on the
basis of documents alone, then the manufacturer or dealer representatives
may not participate in the discussion or decision of the dispute;
(5) Consumers shall be given an adequate opportunity to contest a manufacturer’s
assertion that a nonconformity falls within intended specifications for
the vehicle by having the basis of the manufacturer’s claim appraised
by a technical expert selected and paid for by the consumer prior to the
informal dispute settlement hearing;
(6) A consumer may not be charged with a fee to participate in an informal
dispute procedure; and
(7) Any party to the dispute has the right to be represented by an attorney
in an informal dispute proceeding.
(c) (1)(A) The informal dispute procedure shall annually submit a pool
of not less than six(6) members who are appointed with the advice and
consent of the Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Attorney
(B) Selected strictly by rotation, one (1) member shall hear disputes
scheduled for a particular session unless the consumer requests a panel
of three (3) members, in which case three (3) members shall hear disputes
scheduled for a particular three-member session.
(C) If the informal dispute procedure deems it appropriate to require
the services of an independent investigator, such investigator shall be
selected from a pool of not less than four (4) members who are appointed
annually with the advice and consent of the Consumer Protection Division
of the Office of the Attorney General and from which the particular investigator
shall be selected strictly by rotation.
(2) Upon notification to the administrator of any informal dispute procedure
that a determination has been made by the Consumer Protection Division
of the Office of the Attorney General that a member of any pool is not
conforming to standards of fairness and impartiality, that member shall
be immediately removed from the pool.
Â§ 4-90-415. Enforcement – Exclusivity – Costs and expenses.
(a) A consumer may bring a civil action to enforce this subchapter in
a court of competent jurisdiction.
(b) This subchapter does not limit the rights and remedies that are otherwise
available to a consumer under any applicable provisions of law.
(c) A consumer who prevails in any legal proceeding under this subchapter
is entitled to recover as part of the judgment a sum equal to the aggregate
amount of costs and expenses, including attorney’s fees based upon actual
time expended by the attorney, determined by the court to have been reasonably
incurred by the consumer for or in connection with the commencement and
prosecution of the action.
Â§ 4-90-416. Time limitation for commencement of action.
(a) An action brought under this subchapter must be commenced within
two (2) years following the date the buyer first reports the nonconformity
to the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer.
(b) When the buyer has commenced an informal dispute settlement procedure
described in Â§ 4-90-414, the two-year period specified in subsection (a)
of this section begins to run at the time the informal dispute settlement
procedure is being commenced.
Â§ 4-90-417. Deceptive trade practices.
A violation of any of the provisions of this subchapter shall be deemed
a deceptive trade practice under Â§ 4-88-101 et seq.